This text is a brief description of the features that are present in
the Bash shell (version 4.3, 2 February 2014). The Bash home page is
This is Edition 4.3, last updated 2 February 2014, of `The GNU Bash
Reference Manual', for `Bash', Version 4.3.
Bash contains features that appear in other popular shells, and some
features that only appear in Bash. Some of the shells that Bash has
borrowed concepts from are the Bourne Shell (`sh'), the Korn Shell
(`ksh'), and the C-shell (`csh' and its successor, `tcsh'). The
following menu breaks the features up into categories, noting which
features were inspired by other shells and which are specific to Bash.
This manual is meant as a brief introduction to features found in
Bash. The Bash manual page should be used as the definitive reference
on shell behavior.
* Introduction An introduction to the shell.
* Definitions Some definitions used in the rest of this
* Basic Shell Features The shell "building blocks".
* Shell Builtin Commands Commands that are a part of the shell.
* Shell Variables Variables used or set by Bash.
* Bash Features Features found only in Bash.
* Job Control What job control is and how Bash allows you
to use it.
* Command Line Editing Chapter describing the command line
* Using History Interactively Command History Expansion
* Installing Bash How to build and install Bash on your system.
* Reporting Bugs How to report bugs in Bash.
* Major Differences From The Bourne Shell A terse list of the differences
between Bash and historical
versions of /bin/sh.
* GNU Free Documentation License Copying and sharing this documentation.
* Indexes Various indexes for this manual.
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