give access to the system
login [ -cf ] [ name [ env-var ] ]
login [ -c ] [ -r remotehost remotename localname ]
The login command is used at the beginning of each terminal session
to identify users and allow them access to the system.
It cannot be invoked except when a connection is first established,
or after the previous user has logged out by sending an end-of-file
(<Ctrl>d) to their initial shell.
login asks for a user name (if not supplied as an argument), and, if
appropriate, the user's password and a dialup password.
(For information on dialup passwords, refer to
Echoing is turned off (where possible) during the typing of the passwords,
so it will not appear on the written record of the session.
If the user makes a mistake in the login procedure the user
will receive the message ``Login incorrect''
and a new login prompt will appear. The number of login attempts
the user is allowed is configurable. If the user makes too many unsuccessful
login attempts, the user or the terminal can be locked out.
If the login sequence is not completed successfully within a
configurable period of time (for example, one minute), the user is returned
to the ``login:'' prompt or silently disconnected from a dial-in line.
The login timeout period is controlled by the terminal
(/etc/auth/system/ttys and /etc/auth/system/default),
and should be configured using the Terminal Manager.
The -c option must be specified to enable
accounting for logins that use pseudo-ttys
(over a network or on an
It can also be used safely for ordinary logins.
The -f option enables user login directly without requesting for
a password. For instance, login -f name.
The form of the command that uses the -r option
is used for remote logins across a network.
The remote login must supply parameters in the order indicated;
these are the name of the remote host from which the login is being
attempted, the user's name on the remote host, and the user's name on
the local host (on which the login process is running). This form of
the login command is intended for use by network software rather than
After a successful login, accounting files (/etc/utmp and
/etc/wtmp) are updated, the user is notified if they have mail,
and the start-up shell files (.profile for the Bourne shell or
.login for the C-shell) if any, are executed.
Login sets the user's supplemental groups list.
If the file .suppgroups is in the user's home directory, the
supplemental groups list is taken from this.
The .suppgroups file contains a list of group names, one per line.
Groups are verified before they are added to the supplemental group list.
To be able to use a group, a user must either be explicitly listed in that
group in /etc/group, or the group must have the
group ID listed for the user in the /etc/passwd file.
If no .suppgroups file is found, the supplemental groups list is set
from the /etc/group file plus the login group ID.
If the hushlogin feature is enabled in /etc/default/login
and a file named .hushlogin exists in the user's home directory,
login suppresses the printing of
the last successful and last unsuccessful login times and the copyright
messages. login also sets the environment variable
HUSHLOGIN to TRUE,
so the system and user initialization files are aware a hushlogin
is taking place and can suppress output as appropriate (typically the
message of the day, and the calling of
are suppressed). The .hushlogin file itself does not need to contain
anything; it only needs to exist.
login checks /etc/default/login
for the following definitions of the form DEFINE=value:
initializes the user and group IDs and the working directory,
then executes a command interpreter (usually
according to specifications found in the /etc/passwd file.
Argument 0 of the command interpreter is a dash (-)
followed by the last component
of the interpreter's pathname. The basic environment (see
is initialized to:
If ALTSHELL is set to YES or if it
is not present in /etc/default/login, then the SHELL
environment variable is set to whatever shell is specified
in the user's /etc/passwd entry. If ALTSHELL is set to
NO, then the SHELL environment variable is set only if the
shell is defined in the /usr/lib/mkuser directory (which is
list of recognized shells).
entry means that root can only log in on the device listed.
For example, CONSOLE=/dev/tty01 restricts
root logins to the first console multiscreen device;
this also disables network root logins.
The ALLOWHUSH entry is used to enable or disable the hushlogin
feature on a system-wide basis. If ALLOWHUSH=YES,
login checks for
the existence of a .hushlogin file in the user's home directory.
If the file exists, the environment variable HUSHLOGIN is set to
TRUE and a quiet login takes place.
If ALLOWHUSH=NO or ALLOWHUSH=YES
and there is no .hushlogin file in the user's home directory, the
environment variable HUSHLOGIN is set to FALSE and the
normal login messages appear. If there is no ALLOWHUSH entry,
environment variable is not set and the normal login messages appear.
If a password has expired, the user is prompted to choose a new one. If it
has expired beyond IDLEWEEKS, the user is not allowed to log in,
and must consult system administrator.
This works in conjunction with
This allows root to log in on the
console even if the Protected Password database entry for
root is corrupted. login checks
/etc/default/login to see if there is an entry similar
to the following, which identifies the tty to be used when
doing an override login for root:
a password is required.
Users who do not have a password will be forced to select one.
PASSREQ=NO allows users to have accounts
The REUSEUID entry is used by
If a user's UID is 0 (that is, if this is the super user), the
PATH variable is set to SUPATH, if SUPATH
is specified in /etc/default/login.
It is not advisable for SUPATH to include the current
directory symbol ``.''. Note that an empty directory (``::''
or ``:'' at the beginning or end) is equivalent to ``.''.
This variable defines the maximum allowable file size.
The default value used by the kernel is specified in the file
as 4,194,303 blocks, or approximately 2GB.
This value can be changed using
however, for login sessions, a lower value
specified in /etc/default/login overrides the
kernel default value.
This is the default file creation mask (see
SHELL=last field of passwd entry
Possible HUSHLOGIN=TRUE or FALSE
Initially, umask is set to octal 022 by login.
Not on system console
login is set up to allow root to log on to the console only,
and the user is not on the system console.
The login or dialup password is incorrect.
Unable to change directory to dir
login cannot change directories to the home directory as specified
No utmp entry. You must exec 'login' from the lowest level 'sh'.
init did not put an entry in utmp.
No Root Directory
The shell field starts with a ``'', and the attempt
to do a chroot to the home directory failed.
You don't have a password.
A password is required and it has not been set previously.
Protected Password information suddenly vanished
During the course of working with the Protected Password database
information the pointer pointing to the static version of the information
has suddenly disappeared.
Cannot execute passwd program
The password program cannot be executed for some reason.
Login aborted due to no password.
The password program has returned an error while setting a password, as when
the <Del> key is pressed.
Can't rewrite Protected Password entry for user name,
Authentication error; see Account Administrator
The login program cannot update the Protected Password database entry.
Protected Password database problem
After updating Protected Password data, login reads the information
again and the entry cannot be read. This can be caused by
redundant database backup files and/or lockfiles;
these may be distinguished by a -t suffix.
for information on these files and how to remove them from the system.
Account is disabled but console login is allowed.
Account is disabled -- see Account Administrator.
If the account is locked, but root is logging in on
the console (OVERRIDE tty), the first message is displayed;
an ordinary user will see the second.
Account has been retired -- logins are no longer allowed.
The account is retired see
on how to unretire or remove an account.
Cannot set terminal mode.
The chmod of the tty failed.
Bad login user id.
No UID has been set. This can be due to a missing critical database
file, such as /etc/auth/system/authorize. Run
and check any error messages.
This message will also be issued if login is run from an established
login session rather that from
Wait for login retry.
Wait for login exit."
A login attempt has failed, and the system is configured
to enforce a delay between login attempts.
user appears in /etc/passwd but not in Protected Password database
If the user is in /etc/passwd but not in the Protected Password
database, there is no message printed, but login generates the
audit record shown above.
Cannot obtain database information on this terminal
login cannot get information from /etc/auth/system/ttys
for the tty line.
Error in terminal setup.
Something is wrong with the terminal setup
(for example, stdin, stdout, and stderr are the same thing.)
Cannot obtain settings for this terminal
on the tty device failed.
No login program on root
When attempting to perform a sublogin (using
to change to a subtree for a restricted login),
no login program was found.
Can't rewrite terminal control entry for tty,
Authentication error; see Account Administrator
The information for the login tty cannot be updated.
Terminal Control information suddenly vanished
During the course of working with the terminal database information the
pointer pointing to the static version of the information
Bad priority setting.
nice failed to set the nice value specified in the Protected
Password entry for the user.
Bad supplemental group list.
The call to setgroups failed.
Bad group id.
The call to setgid failed.
Bad user id.
The call to setuid failed.
Unable to set kernel privileges.
The call to set the kernel privileges failed.
Login timed out
login received an ALARM signal.
Note: login sets this itself, but it could conceivably come from
Terminal is disabled but root login is allowed.
Terminal is disabled -- see Account Administrator.
If the terminal is disabled and root attempts to login on the
(OVERRIDE) tty the first message is displayed; the second
message is displayed when any other user attempts to login on
a disabled terminal.
The security databases are corrupt.
However, root login at terminal tty is allowed,
This is the message displayed when the OVERRIDE tty is used
during a security problem.
Impossible to execute /bin/sh!
login cannot execute the shell program for doing an OVERRIDE.
login cannot be executed from a shell.
If the Network Information Service (NIS) is disabled,
accounts that are normally accessed from an NIS server
will not be able to log in.
Environment variables such as HZ, PATH, and so forth
should not be defined in /etc/default/login. Instead use
/etc/initscript to set global variables.
Sublogins (indicated by a shell of ``'') are not supported
and cause a warning.
Although IDLEWEEKS and PASSREQ are
supported for compatibility with other UNIX systems,
their use is not recommended. The proper way
to set the behavior defined by these variables is by
use of the
Users with the auth authorization
may not use login within a session.
information on current logins
history of logins since last multiuser
mailbox for user name
message of the day
default values for environment variables and login behavior
system profile for Bourne or Korn shell
personal profile for Bourne or Korn shell
personal C shell login file
personal C shell initialization file
supplemental groups file
make login quieter
© 2003 Caldera International, Inc. All rights reserved.
SCO OpenServer Release 5.0.7 -- 11 February 2003