mscreen -- serial multiscreens utility


mscreen [ -s ] [ -n number ] [ -t ]


mscreen allows a serial terminal to have multiple login screens similar to the multiscreen(M) console.

Note: For full mscreen support the terminal must have the ability to switch internal screen pages on command and it must retain a separate cursor position for each screen page.

The options are as follows:

Silent mode. This flag suppresses the startup messages, and on ``dumb'' terminals it suppresses the screen switch messages.

Selects the number of serial multiscreens desired up to the maximum defined for the terminal type. If -n is not specified , the default is the maximum defined for the terminal type.

Disables the transparent tty checking. mscreen normally exits silently if the terminal device name starts with the characters ``ttyp''. Device names beginning with ``ttyp'' are used as slave devices for mscreen. The correct names for the master tty devices begin with ``ptyp''.
mscreen can be used on both ``smart'' and ``dumb'' terminals. Although it is optimized to take advantage of smart terminals with screen memory, mscreen also works on dumb terminals, although the screen images are not saved during screen changes. mscreen also supports terminals with two (or more) serial ports that are connected to different computers.

mscreen is designed to be invoked from the .profile or .login files so that serial multiscreens can be started when you log in (see ``Shell return codes and auto login/logout'').

The ``stop'' and ``quit'' keys allow you to logout from all screens with a single keystroke.

mscreen pseudo terminal usage

The steps to use mscreen are:


mscreen determines the terminal type of the terminal it is invoked from by examining the environment variable TERM. mscreen looks in /etc/mscreencap or in the filename contained in the environment variable MSCREENCAP to get the capabilities for the terminal type.

mscreencap format

The mscreencap file contains an entry for each terminal type supported. An entry may have several names if the support for several terminal types is the same. Within an entry are the key mappings for each potential pseudo terminal. Each pseudo terminal has a help key string, an input string (the sequence generated by the key that selects this screen), and an optional output string (the sequence to send to the terminal that will cause a page switch). The input and output strings are in a termcap like format: (the backslash and caret are special lead in (escape) characters).

an octal number, one to three digits are allowed


carriage return



form feed

escape (hex 1b, octal 33).

enter backslash as a data character

enter caret as a data character

stands for <Ctrl>x where x can be one of: @ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[]^_ Effectively, the caret can generate hex 01 through hex 1f.
If a terminal type has no output strings then it is assumed to be a dumb terminal that does not have multiple internal memory pages.

There are five special entries that allow the user to define keys to support the other functions of mscreen. The entries are:

prints a list of all of the keys that are currently available and their functions,

prints the name of the current screen,

terminates mscreen and returns an exit value of zero,

terminates mscreen and returns a non-zero exit value,
the fifth entry is a dummy used for terminals with multiple ports.

The format is:

   #this is a comment and may only appear between entries
The specialname is empty for real screen entries. See the provided /etc/mscreencap for examples.

.mscreenrc usage and format

mscreen automatically assigns pseudo terminal devices when it starts up. If necessary, you can assign pseudo terminals by creating a file named .mscreenrc in your home directory.

.mscreenrc contains a list of pseudo terminals to be used, for example:


Shell return codes and auto login/logout

mscreen exits with a bad (non-zero) return code if there is an error or when the ``quit'' key is pressed. The ``stop'' key causes mscreen to exit with a good (zero) return code. This allows users to place mscreen in the .login or .profile files. The .login or .profile files should set up an automatic logout if the mscreen return code is good (zero). The following is a csh sample invocation of mscreen for a .login file:

mscreen -n 4
if ($status == 0) logout

For sh and ksh, add the following line to .profile:

if mscreen -n 4 ; then exit ; fi

The single key logout feature of mscreen works as if a normal logout was entered on each pseudo terminal. A hangup signal is sent to all of the processes on all the pseudo terminals.

Multiple port option

mscreen provides a dummy entry type. It allows mscreen to be placed in an inactive state while the user uses his terminal to converse through another (physical) I/O port to another computer. See the provided /etc/mscreencap for an example. To use it, you must take the example and configure it for your needs.


Do not enable the pseudo terminals used by mscreen for login; mscreen uses utmp_getty(M) and sd(ADM) to create its own getty(M) process on each pseudo terminal.

Do not switch screen pages in mscreen when output is occurring because if an escape sequence is cut in half it may leave the terminal in an indeterminate state and distort the screen image.

Terminals that save the cursor location for each screen often do not save states such as insert mode, inverse video, and others. For example, you should not change screens if you are in insert mode in vi, and you should be careful not to change screens during an inverse video output sequence.

For inactive screens (screens other than the current one) mscreen saves the last 2048 characters of data (2KB). Data older than this is lost. This limit occasionally results in errors for programs that require more data than this. Some applications have screen redraw keys (often <Ctrl>R or <Ctrl>L) that can be used to restore the normal appearance of the screen.


mscreen has a VTIM timeout of 1/5 second for input strings.

mscreen has a limit of twenty multiscreens per user.

mscreen depends on the pseudo terminal device names starting with ``ttyp'' for the slave devices and ``ptyp'' for the master devices. The number of trailing characters in the device name is not significant.

See also

mkdev(ADM), multiscreen(M), sd(ADM)

``Using serial multiscreens with mscreen'' in the System Administration Guide

Standards conformance

mscreen is not part of any currently supported standard; it is an extension of AT&T System V provided by The Santa Cruz Operation, Inc.
© 2003 Caldera International, Inc. All rights reserved.
SCO OpenServer Release 5.0.7 -- 11 February 2003