getsockopt, setsockopt -- get and set options on sockets


cc ... -lsocket

#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/socket.h>

int getsockopt(s, level, optname, optval, optlen) int s, level, optname; void *optval; int *optlen;

int setsockopt(s, level, optname, optval, optlen) int s, level, optname; const void *optval; int optlen;


getsockopt( ) and setsockopt( ) manipulate options associated with a socket. Options may exist at multiple protocol levels; they are always present at the uppermost ``socket'' level.

When manipulating socket options, the level at which the option resides and the name of the option must be specified. To manipulate options at the ``socket'' level, level is specified as SOL_SOCKET. To manipulate options at any other level, the protocol number of the appropriate protocol controlling the option is supplied. For example, to indicate that an option is to be interpreted by the TCP protocol, level should be set to the protocol number of TCP. See getprotoent(SLIB) for more information.

The parameters optval and optlen are used to access option values for setsockopt. For getsockopt( ), they identify a buffer in which the value for the requested option(s) are to be returned. For getsockopt( ), optlen is a value-result parameter, initially containing the size of the buffer pointed to by optval, and modified on return to indicate the actual size of the value returned. If no option value is to be supplied or returned, optval may be supplied as 0.

optname and any specified options are passed uninterpreted to the appropriate protocol module for interpretation. The <sys/socket.h> header file contains definitions for ``socket'' level options, described below. Options at other protocol levels vary in format and name; consult the appropriate entries in the (ADMP) man page section.

Most socket-level options take an int parameter for optval. For setsockopt( ), the parameter should be non-zero to enable a boolean option, or zero if the option is to be disabled. SO_LINGER uses a struct linger parameter, defined in <sys/socket.h>, which specifies the desired state of the option and the linger interval (see below).

The following options are recognized at the socket level. Except as noted, each may be examined with getsockopt( ) and set with setsockopt( ).

toggle recording of debugging information

toggle local address reuse

toggle on/off local port reuse

toggle keep connections alive

toggle routing bypass for outgoing messages

linger on close if data present

toggle permission to transmit broadcast messages

toggle reception of out-of-band data in band

set buffer size for output

set buffer size for input

set low-water mark for output

set low-water mark for input

get the type of the socket (get only)

get and clear error on the socket (get only)

get/set the protocol number associated with the stream

SO_DEBUG enables debugging in the underlying protocol modules.

SO_REUSEADDR indicates that the rules used in validating addresses supplied in a bind(SSC) call should allow reuse of local addresses. Similarly, SO_REUSEPORT indicates that the rules used in validating ports supplied in a bind(SSC) call should allow reuse of the local port.

SO_KEEPALIVE enables the periodic transmission of messages on a connected socket. Should the connected party fail to respond to these messages, the connection is considered broken and processes using the socket are notified via a SIGPIPE signal.

SO_DONTROUTE indicates that outgoing messages should bypass the standard routing facilities. Instead, messages are directed to the appropriate network interface according to the network portion of the destination address.

SO_LINGER (see following NOTE) controls the action taken when unsent messages are queued on socket and a close(S) is performed. If the socket promises reliable delivery of data and SO_LINGER is set, the system will block the process on the close( ) attempt until it is able to transmit the data or until it decides it is unable to deliver the information. A timeout period, termed the linger interval, is specified in the setsockopt( ) call when SO_LINGER is requested. If SO_LINGER is disabled and a ( ) is issued, the system will process the close in a manner that allows the process to continue as quickly as possible.

NOTE: Due to artifacts of the current implementation, the linger option no longer has an effect. It is still recognized by the system for backward compatibility. Currently, close( ) operations complete as expeditiously as possible. If unsent data remains, the protocols will ensure its delivery.

SO_BROADCAST requests permission to send broadcast datagrams on the socket. Broadcast was a privileged operation in earlier versions of the system.

With protocols that support out-of-band data, SO_OOBINLINE requests that out-of-band data be placed in the normal data input queue as received; it will then be accessible with the recv( ) or read( ) calls without the MSG_OOB flag.

SO_SNDBUF and SO_RCVBUF are options to adjust the normal buffer sizes allocated for output and input buffers, respectively. The buffer size may be increased for high-volume connections, or may be decreased to limit the possible backlog of incoming data. The system places an absolute limit on these values.

SO_SNDLOWAT and SO_RCVLOWAT are options to adjust the normal low-water marks allocated for output and input buffers, respectively. Processes that are blocked for either input or output will not be awakened until the backlog of data drops below the low-water mark.

SO_TYPE and SO_ERROR are options used only with getsockopt( ). SO_TYPE returns the type of the socket, such as SOCK_STREAM; it is useful for servers that inherit sockets on startup. SO_ERROR returns any pending error on the socket and clears the error status. It may be used to check for asynchronous errors on connected datagram sockets or for other asynchronous errors.

SO_PROTOTYPE binds a protocol number to the socket. This option is necessary to support raw IP sockets (for example) and, as such, is used primarily by the BSD compatibility module.

Return values

A return value of zero indicates that the call succeeded. A return value of -1 indicates that an error occurred, and in this case an error code is stored in the global variable errno.


The call fails if:

The s argument is not a valid descriptor.

The s argument points to a file, not a socket.

The option is unknown at the level indicated.

The address pointed to by optval is not in a valid part of the process address space. For getsockopt( ), this error may also be returned if optlen is not in a valid part of the process address space.


Several of the socket options should be handled at lower levels of the system.

See also

getprotoent(SLIB), ioctl(S), protocols(SFF), socket(SSC)
© 2003 Caldera International, Inc. All rights reserved.
SCO OpenServer Release 5.0.7 -- 11 February 2003